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Methods to improve the effectiveness of intra-organizational communications.


Managing communication processes in an organization includes:


- finding and identifying obstacles to effective communication;


- developing and implementing ways to remove such obstacles and improve the effectiveness of communication processes.


There are many factors that impede the implementation of effective communication, the main ones being:


1. Filtering. When a worker says what his supervisor wants to hear, he filters information. Filtering is a function of: a) conflict between spheres of competence; b) conflict of interests and needs of the sender and receiver of the message; c) height of the structure of the organization (the higher the level of management, the more conditions for filtering); d) the experience of previous negative communications.


2. Selective perception. The recipient perceives better the information that meets his or her needs, motivation, experience, and other personal characteristics. The degree of interest in the information he receives is determined by his expectations, and therefore determines the nature of decoding information.


3. Semantic barriers. The same words have different meanings for different people. Age, education, and cultural environment are the three most important factors that affect the meaning of words used in the communicative process. In an organization, people come from different types of environments. Horizontal communications between professionals of the same profile contribute to their own jargon or specific technical language that is not understood by others. Large organizations with branches in different countries use terms specific to the respective region. All this eventually leads to semantic barriers.


4. Poor feedback.


5. Cultural differences (discrepancies) between the sender and receiver of information.


6. Information overload. These arise from the inability to respond effectively to all information received. There is a need to sift out the least important information and leave only the most important.


To improve the effectiveness of communication, the manager must solve two problems:


- First, he needs to improve his communications;


- Second, he must improve his mechanism for understanding what others are trying to convey to him in the process of communication.


The main methods that help solve such problems are:


1) regulating the flow of information (dividing problems into those that are solved by the manager and those that can be unleashed by subordinates);


2) improving feedback based on:


- formulating questions to the listener during the message;


- repeating all or part of the message;


- application of different variants of teaching the same information;


3) the use of empathy. Empathy is the ability to put yourself in the place of the interlocutor, take into account his feelings, character traits, etc;


4) encouraging mutual trust;


5) simplifying the language of the message;


6) development of the ability to listen effectively (Keith Davis's "art of effective listening" instruction).


Style and strategy of interpersonal communications. Interpersonal communication style is the manner in which a person behaves when exchanging information with a second person. This manner depends mainly on the degree of awareness (level of knowledge) of both one and the other party of the information that is the subject of the exchange. Different combinations of awareness/unawareness of the sender and receiver of information for communication are given in the matrix, which is called the "Johari window"

The Johari Window matrix identifies four fields, each of which generates a corresponding style of interpersonal communication.


1. "Arena" (open zone). Within this field, conditions for shonayefektivnyh interpersonal communications are formed. Both the sender and the recipient of the message are sufficiently aware of the subject of communication, and are therefore able to effectively support the process of information exchange. In the open zone favorable conditions for mutual understanding are formed. The larger the arena, the more effective the communications will be.


2. "Dark Spot" (blind spot). The recipient is sufficiently aware of the essence of the message to be received. The sender, on the other hand, has a vague idea of what he has to communicate, and therefore finds himself in a highly disadvantaged position. It is difficult for him to understand the behavior and decisions made by the recipient of the information. In this situation, the sender tries to avoid and destroy communications.


3. "Facade" (secret zone). The sender is well aware of the information that becomes the subject of communication, which cannot be said about the recipient. The problem of this field is insufficient depth (floor) of communication. This is due to the fact that the sender:


a) may not communicate information that he or she considers potentially harmful to the relationship with the recipient;


b) fears that the information he will transmit in the process of communication could destroy his power.


As a consequence of the above problems of the secret zone, a "facade" situation arises, that is, only such information is transmitted as is beneficial to the sender. "Facade" reduces the field of the "arena" and narrows the possibilities for effective communication.


4. "Ignorance." One of the participants in the communication processes is unaware of the subject matter of the communication. In this case, the effectiveness of communication is the lowest.


To increase the effectiveness of communication from the "Johari Window" position two strategies are used:


1. "Exposure strategy" (disclosure strategy). Increasing the "arena field" and a corresponding decrease in the "façade field" requires the sender to be more open and honest in communicating information. This strategy is called exposure in that the sender, conveying truthful information as if revealing (exposing) himself, leaves unprotected his vulnerable positions.


2. "Feedback Strategy". The field of "dark spot" can be reduced by improving feedback. But this requires:


- Consent of the recipient to listen effectively;


- Consent of the sender to effectively (with more exposure) lay out the information that the recipient does not understand.


This means that:


1) establishing feedback depends on active cooperation between sender and receiver;


2) increasing exposure depends on the active behavior of only the sender.


Practice has developed many different approaches to improve the effectiveness of communication processes in the organization. One of the best known is the approach proposed by the American Management Association, which is called "10 Precepts for Effective Communication".


1. Clarify your ideas before you start communicating. This means systematically realizing and analyzing the issues, problems, and ideas that are the subject of communication. The deeper you think about your future messages, the more transparent and clearer the communication process is.


2. Clarify the true purpose of the communication. The manager needs to clearly identify what you want to achieve with your message. If that purpose is clearly identified, then communications are easy to design.


3. Take into account the elements of the communication environment, both physical and human. The question: what to say, who to say it to; how to say it; when to say it; always contribute to the success of the communication. In doing so, such questions should be run through the "sieve" of the physical communication environment, the social climate, and past communication experiences, and adapt all of these to the current communication situation.


4. Try to get help from others in the communication process. Consultation with others can be a useful method of better understanding the levers of communication management. Moreover, the one who helps formulate messages is usually the force that actively supports the communication.


5. Watch your voice intonation as carefully as you do the content of the message. Listeners are influenced not only by what is said, but also by how it is said. Voice volume, facial expression, and choice of words all affect the listener's response in the communication process.

6. Communicate as much useful information as possible. People remember messages that are useful to them. A manager should formulate his or her messages so that they address the interests and needs of both subordinates and the organization.


7. Monitor the communication process. The manager needs to take care to establish a good feedback loop, to know if the message that is being communicated is clear to the subordinates.


8. Back up your words with concrete actions. When a manager contradicts himself by saying one thing and doing another, he discredits his own instructions. Subordinates are always critical of a manager's behavior and are quick to respond to such situations.


9. Keep in mind that modern communications affect the future. Most communications reflect the needs of the current situation, but they must simultaneously be directed toward the future.


10. Try to be good listeners.

The following principles are useful for organizing effective communication because they focus on four crucial areas: message quality, reception conditions, maintaining the integrity of organized effort, and taking advantage of informal organization.


Principle of Clarity. While communication is often thought of simply as a message in order for it to have any value, it must pass the test of clarity: a message has clarity if it is expressed in such language and communicated in such a way that it can be understood by the recipient.


Principle of Integrity. Managerial messages are means rather than ends.


The principle of integrity is as follows: the purpose of management messages is to facilitate the establishment of understanding between people in the process of their cooperation aimed at achieving the goals of the enterprise.


The principle of strategic use of information organization. The nature of this key principle is the following: the most


  • effective communication occurs when managers use

  • informal organization in addition to the communication of the formal

  • organization.


Consider ways to improve the communication process in terms of interpersonal (informal) and organizational (formal) communications. These types of communications are very different from each other and, therefore, the ways to improve them are also different.


In interpersonal communications, the main thing is to improve the science of communication. There are a few simple principles which, if followed, will help a manager become more communicative.


Ability to listen. Effective communication is impossible without the ability to listen.


Clarity of ideas. Clarifying ideas before they are communicated means that you must systematically think through and analyze the issues, problems, and ideas you want to make the objects of communication.


Body language and intonation. You have to watch your body language, posture, and intonation to avoid sending contradictory signals. By sending harmonious signs that do not contain contradictory messages, you achieve greater clarity and understanding of your words.


Empathy and openness. Empathy is attention to other people's feelings, empathy. Successful use of empathy can markedly reduce the possibility of misunderstanding when the message is decoded by the receiver. Empathy in information exchange also means keeping an open mind in the conversation.


Establishing feedback. Feedback is important because it allows you to determine whether your message, as received by the recipient, is really interpreted in the sense you originally gave it.


There are a number of ways to establish feedback. One is to ask questions. Another way to establish feedback is to evaluate the language of the person's postures, gestures, and intonation, which seem to indicate confusion or misunderstanding. Feedback can also be established by monitoring the first results of the work. Relevant information will allow you to assess the extent to which what you intended to communicate is being realized.


In organizational communications, improving the flow of information is key. Here are some specific ways to improve information flow in organizations that any manager should know.


Regulating the flow of information. Managers at all levels of the organization must represent the information needs of their own, their supervisors, their colleagues and their subordinates.


The manager must learn to assess the qualitative and quantitative sides of his information needs, as well as other information consumers in the organization. He must try to determine what is "too much" and "too little" in information exchanges.


Regulation of information flow is just one example of the manager's actions to improve information exchange.


Feedback systems. In the same way that feedback can improve interpersonal information exchange, organizational feedback systems can also work. Such systems are part of the system of control and management information system in the organization. One option for a feedback system is to move people from one part of the organization to another to discuss certain issues. Interviews with employees are another version of a feedback system. Such surveys can be conducted to obtain information from managers and workers on literally hundreds of issues.


Suggestion Collection Systems. Suggestion collection systems are designed to make it easier to get information to the top. All workers are given the opportunity to generate ideas for improving any aspect of the organization.


Proposal Collection Systems. Suggestion-gathering systems are designed to make it easier to get information to the top. All employees are given the opportunity to generate ideas for improving any aspect of the organization.


The purpose of such systems is to reduce the tendency of filtering or ignoring ideas on the way up. Most often such a system is implemented in the form of suggestion boxes, where employees can anonymously submit their suggestions. A suggestion collection system can be set up in a different way. The organization can deploy a private telephone network or desktop notification system through which employees can call anonymously and ask questions about appointments and promotions. Another option for a feedback system involves creating a group of managers and rank-and-file employees who meet and discuss issues of mutual interest. Another approach relies on quality circles and groups of non-management employees who meet weekly to discuss suggestions for improvement.


The organization's newsletters, publications, and videos. Relatively large organizations tend to publish monthly


newsletters that contain information for all employees. Such monthly newsletters may include articles reviewing management proposals, employee health topics, a new contract, a new type of product or service intended to be offered to customers soon, and management responses to questions from rank-and-file employees.


State-of-the-art information technology. Recent advances in information technology can help improve information sharing in organizations.


The personal computer has already had a huge impact on the information that managers, support staff and workers send and receive. Email gives workers the ability to send written messages to anyone in the organization. This should reduce the traditionally inexhaustible stream of phone calls. In addition, the global Internet now plays a huge role in the dissemination of information.


The communication network of the manager.


The flow of information in an organized social system is an essential element of its effective functioning. Significant part of the task of managing any organization is to create a communication network and guarantee of getting the right information to the right people at the right time. It is necessary to develop such a communication network so that it could organically combine stability and dynamism, controllability and spontaneity, new and previous experience.


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